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Latest Application Notes

Cleaning Microreactors
Syrris Ltd

This application note gives hints and tips on cleaning & unblocking flow reactors, i.e. chips or tube based reactors. It is suggested that the whole document is read before attempting to unblock a reactor.

The Basics of Flow Chemistry
Syrris Ltd

This application note gives information on the basics of flow chemistry, with particular reference to the FRX system.

Heating on an Atlas Hotplate
Syrris Ltd

In the following experiments, different vessels were heated using the Atlas hotplate, with and without the Atlas Stacking Drybath. In every case, an external thermocouple probe has been used with the system to accurately measure “reaction” temperature.

Analysing Endotherms using Atlas
Syrris Ltd

This application note shows how atlas and reaction monitoring can be used to look at endothermic processes.

Tracking Exotherms using Atlas Reaction Monitoring
Syrris Ltd

This application note shows how atlas and reaction monitoring can be used to look at exothermic processes.

Reaction Monitoring with Atlas 1
Syrris Ltd

This application note reports the use of the atlas system to monitor the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride, a typical test reaction for exothermic processes.

Reaction Monitoring with Atlas 2
Syrris Ltd

This application note details an experiment to show the repeatability and scalability of reaction monitoring signals by using an electrical heater system.

Examples of FRX Applications for Demonstration
Syrris Ltd

FRX as a product offers a wide range of applications in a number of areas. To try and increase the exposure of the product to a wider audience, two standard demonstrations are detailed here. The first is a Wittig reaction showing the operation of an FRX200 system. The second is a separation of water and ethyl acetate demonstrating the operation of the FLLEX (Flow Liquid Liquid EXtraction module), for FRX300 or FRX400.

Planning Successful Reactions
Syrris Ltd

This application note gives hints and tips for planning successful FRX reactions.

Superheating Reactions
Syrris Ltd

When using the Pressurisation Module, the FRX system can be easily pressurised up to 7bar. This allows reactions to be performed at temperatures much higher than atmospheric reflux, enabling faster and often cleaner, higher yielding reactions. This application note describes the practicalities of superheating reactions and the suggested maximum temperatures for common solvents.

Reaction Optimisation and Large Scale Synthesis
Syrris Ltd

A major benefit of flow chemistry is the ease and consistency of reaction scale up. In a flow reactor, high quality, reproducible mixing, excellent temperature control and superheating are maintained when increasing reaction volume.

Enantiomer Analysis using the Peregrine High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis (HPCE) System with Label Free Intrinsic Imaging (LFII™)
deltaDOT

Four pairs of enantiomers from a range of basic, neutral and acidic drugs were successfully analysed and resolved using the Peregrine High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis system and deltaDOT’s proprietary LFII™ technology, demonstrating the ability to produce high quality reproducible data in terms of peak mobility (<0.1 % R.S.D.) and peak area (<2.5 % R.S.D.). In addition the ability to detect 0.1% impurity R or S Atenolol in the presence of 99.9% of the other enantiomer is demonstrated.

Analysis of E.coli lysate using Peregrine High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis (HPCE) with Label Free Intrinsic Imaging (LFII™)
deltaDOT

Analytical instruments with the capability of analyzing complex mixture of bio-molecules with high precision, excellent reproducibility and quantitative indications are highly sought after in fields ranging from routine quality control procedure in bio-molecule production to biomarker discovery and diagnostic industry. This application note describes the high resolution separation and subsequent molecular weight characterization of four of the most abundant protein in E. coli cell lysate, using

Analysis of ‚ ß-Lactam Antibiotics, for their identification in food products, using deltaDOT Peregrine – HPCE
DeltaDOT

Various penicillin derivatives are widely used to treat infectious diseases in humans and animals, acting to kill or inhibit the growth of the infectious organism. The presence of antibiotics in the food chain is tightly controlled to avoid new strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria developing. EEC regulations now determine maximum limits for each of the 8 penicillin derivatives that can be allowed in animal tissue products for the consumer. A mixture of these 8 antibiotic derivatives was anal

Indirect UV Analysis of Amino Acids using by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with LFII™ Detection
deltaDOT

A mixture of amino acids was successfully analysed using deltaDOT’s Peregrine HPCE at high pH to fully ionize each of the amino acid residues. Indirect UV detection was employed to visualise the 9 amino acids. Excellent resolution has been demonstrated between all 9 amino acid residues, with high reproducibility for migration time (<0.5% R.S.D.) and peak area (<2% R.S.D.). deltaDOT’s core technology of Label Free Intrinsic Imaging, (LFII™) may be applied to indirect UV measurements fo

The Basics Of Flow Chemistry
Syrris Ltd

This application note gives information on the basics of flow chemistry, with particular reference to the Africa system.

Planning Successful Reactions
Syrris Ltd

This application note gives hints and tips for planning successful Africa reactions.

Cleaning Flow Reactors
Syrris Ltd

This application note gives hints and tips on cleaning & unblocking Africa flow reactors, i.e. chips or tube reactors.

Examples of Africa Chemistry
Syrris Ltd

This application note describes examples of some of the chemistry performed using the Africa system. This is not intended to be a detailed analysis of each reaction, more a demonstration of the range of reactions possible.

Reaction Optimisation 1
Syrris Ltd

This application note describes the optimisation of a Passerini reaction. The objective was to optimise a literature procedure to reach the highest yield of desired product with a maximum of 1hr reaction time.

Reaction Optimisation 2
Syrris Ltd

This application note describes the optimisation of 2 out of 4 substitution reactions given to Syrris by a pharmaceutical company. The pharma company in question had attempted some reaction optimisation by traditional techniques but always had starting material remaining, even after a week long reaction. The starting materials (of commercial sensitivity) were given to Syrris with the objective of using the Africa synthesis & analysis system to optimise to 100% conversion.

Superheating Reactions
Syrris Ltd

When using the Pressurisation Module, the Africa system can be easily pressurised up to 7bar. This allows reactions to be performed at temperatures much higher than atmospheric reflux, enabling faster and often cleaner, higher yielding reactions. This application note describes the practicalities of superheating reactions and the suggested maximum temperatures for common solvents.

Reactor Size Selection
Syrris Ltd

One of the key differences between batch and flow is that for flow reactions, residence time, reactor volume and throughput are all linked. Therefore increasing the volume of the reactor will increase the residence time (if the flow rate is kept constant) or increase the flow rate (if the residence time is kept constant). This document gives information on how to select the right reactor for the right application.

Africa and Design of Experiments
Syrris Ltd

Reaction optimisation work using traditional techniques can be complex, time consuming and expensive, but is a vital part of the development of all chemical processes. One approach is the use of statistical experimental design (DoE). This application note gives some guidance on DoE and it’s use with the Africa system.

Flow Aqueous Work-up Using FLLEX
Syrris Ltd

This application note demonstrates the use of the Africa FLLEX (Flow Liquid Liquid EXtraction) module for performing post reaction automated liquid-liquid extraction in a standard Africa flow system. An amide coupling reaction was performed in the Africa system and worked up by extraction with aqueous bicarbonate to remove by-products. The quality of extraction and separation was the same batch.

Biphasic Reactions
Syrris Ltd

A biphasic reaction involving electrophilic substitution of orcinol with a diazonium salt has been examined in the Africa flow system. The two-phase product solution was separated in the FLLEX module to give the azo product in the organic stream and an aqueous waste stream.

The Mono-Boc protection of p-xylylenediamine in the Africa flow microreactor
Syrris Ltd

Microreactors offer rapid chemical optimisation coupled with minimal use of starting materials. The experiment described, vide infra, is part of a one day investigation into the synthesis optimisation of N-Boc-p-xylylenediamine.

The Forced Degradation (De-esterification) of Parabens Using a Microreactor Flow System
Syrris Ltd

Product degradation studies are an important test for any pharmaceutical or other high value active material. These experiments generally expose the material to an external stress to assess the stability of the constituents or formulation. External stresses may include temperature, pH, light, moisture, and even exposure to other materials within the product formulation, and their degradation products.

Increasing Chemist Productivity in an Open-Access Environment
ACD/Labs

“Open-Access” or “Walk-up” analytical instrumentation, has changed the way many routine analytical experiments are now run. Chemists, rather than analytical support groups, now carry the burden of processing, analysis, and interpretation of analytical data. This application note will highlight the benefits of having good NMR software tools that chemists can access, in the convenience of their own lab or office and how NMR prediction and verification algorithms can aid chemists in their interpre

New Modular Chelate Phosphane, Phosphinite, Phosphonite and Phosphite Ligands for Homogeneous Catalysis
Chemspeed Technologies